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Physics Department

Faculty of Sciences & Techniques

Abdelmalek Essaadi University


Tel: 0021239393954

Fax: 0021239393953






About the Lab


Mission statement



The Applied Physics Laboratory is a research unit of the faculty of Sciences and techniques located in Tanger. The primary mission of the laboratory is to support the education area program of the academic departments of the faculty. For this reason, it takes care of some basic Physics teaching for the students. The research at the Laboratory is interdisciplinary. The members of the Laboratory are heat engineers, physicists, biologists and Agro…. Several projects Research program are chosen in the areas between fundamental and applied physics. Because the APL is a new Laboratory, all the research activities are run in collaboration with external collaborators, national and international.

Areas of expertise


High Energy physics


Materiel Sciences




Detection & Data Analysis


Radio protection





Research program


Research area



    • High Energy Physics.
    • Protection of the Environment.
    • Detection.
    • Heat.
    • Material Sciences.
    • Mechanic.
    • Bio-Physic.
    • Statistical Physics.
    • Matter.
    • Process Engineering.




Research projects:



    • Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. New
    • Determination of the pi N Scattering Lengths from Exotic Atom Experiments.
    • Recherche du point triple fluide - cube centré - cube face centrée dans les dispersions colloïdales interagissant par un potentiel répulsif.
    • Modélisation numérique des systèmes électromagnétiques.




Collaboration Members



    • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. Switzerland.
    • Space Research Center, University Road, Great Britain.
    • Institute of Physics, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
    • Paul Scherrer Institut, CH 5232 Switzerland.
    • Institut fur Kernphysik, Forschungsanlage Julich, D-52425 Julich, Germany
    • Institut de Physique, Université de Neuchâtel, CH-2000 Neuchâtel Switzerland.
    • Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian.
    • Institut fur Mittelenergiephysik, Wien, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Austria.
    • Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland.
    • University of Ioannina, Greece
    • Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex 05, France
    • Universite Mohamed V, Ecole Mohammadia D’Ingenieurs. Maroc
    • Institut National de Recherche Agronomique. Maroc.
    • Laboratoire de Recherche des Techniques Inductives (Centre de recherche et de transfert de technologie) saint Nazaire France
    • Laboratoire de Métallurgie de La F.S.T saint Gérôme Marseille France.






Education area:



    • DESS
    • DEUG
    • MST Civil Engineering
    • Formation continue : Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Métiers (Nantes)
    • Formation continue ‘ Mastère d’Aptitude en Technologie’ 










Research Personnel Directory

Here you found the CV for each personal scientists, including their research areas of interest and contact information.


Founder Members

A.J. Rusi el Hassani




N. Elyaagoubi



External Members















Dear visitor,

It is a great honour for us to have you in our page web site. We hope that you will found some material to be of use to you in discovering some application in physics, math, chemistry, mechanics, biology…. We have put up some Java applets in Physics here from other sites. They deal with some basic physics concepts and others.

Welcome and enjoy your self.



Visual aided physics



Physics 2000

An interactive journey through modern physics.Have fun learning visually and conceptually about 20th century science and high-tech devices. Uses java applets.

The Virtual Laboratory

A large, annotated list of physics related java applets (also some VRML and Shockwave stuff) available on the net. Also provides a way to join a list devoted to discussions on development and use of java in physics education and research.

Nuclear Power Plant Demonstration

Java applet of a basic nuclear power plant. Try to keep the reactor running safely under various failure scenarios.

Radiation Simulator

A JAVA applet which displays radioactive decay and explains the phenomena

Physlet Problems

Physics applets plus the source code. Links to other applet sites and authors are here as well.

NTNU Virtual Physics Laboratory

Virtual Physics Java Laboratory, more than 50 physics related java applets developed at NTNU.

Fowler's Physics Applets

These supplement physics courses taught by Michael Fowler at U of Virginia. They include Newton's cannon, Brownian motion, Rutherford scattering, and collisions in two dimensions.

Syracuse Physics Educational Modules and Simulations

A good sampling of ways that science and computing are becoming interactive



Java Applets for Engineering Education

Statics, dynamics and fluid dynamics.

Java Applets on Semiconductor Physics

Semiconductor physics applets, such as Fermi levels and hole drift.

Mark's Quantum Mechanics Applets

A collection of sample Java applets which demonstrate various aspects of quantum mechanics, including the hydrogen atom and Heisenberg’s Uncertaintly Principle.

Interactive Color Wheel

The SIH Wheel is a Java applet that allows a person to view relationships between color (Saturation, Intensity, and Hue) and luma.

Contemporary College Physics Simulation Library

A very nice site with a large collection of java applets demonstrating various physics phenomena which run from basic to modern physics topics.

Particle-in-a-Box Applet –

An applet which shows the energy eigen states for a particle in a box with a variable center potential.

Interactive Physics

A website that teaches physics through interactive applets

How To Teach Statistical Thermal Physics In An Introductory Physics Course

Several simulation applets which can be used to teach the statistical foundations of thermal physics in introductory college physics courses. Download applets for free.

Nuclides 2000: The Radionuclide Portal

Allows the simulation of the radioactive decay of over 2000 radio nuclides using standard colour schemes (Karlsruhe, Strasbourg, General Electric). Basic decay data can be viewed by holding the mouse over a nuclide and consists of half-lives, modes of decay, and branching ratios. "Blinking" nuclides indicate strong gamma emitters with energies above a user-definable threshold value.

Java Applets on Basic Circuit Concepts

Several circuit applets, like Fourier series and RLC circuit diagrams.

Electromagnetic Theory Java Applets

A few applets illustrating EM concepts.






Physics at Apple by College

A comprehensive collection of Java Applets on waves, sound, light and optics. Suitable for high school physics students.

General Physics Java Applets

Java applets useful for learning basics of Physics. Collection is diverse, but mechanics is dealt with more extensively than other topics.

AJ's Cosmic Thing

A full featured star/planet plotter applet from the perspective of anywhere on Earth.

Java Applet Collection for Learning Physics

Applets for learning university level physics. Also includes link to older DOS software (momentum space visualization).

150 Java Applets Related to Physics Education

A directory of interactive physics applets for educators and students dealing with many subjects.

Ripple Tank Applet

Two wave sources in a ripple tank. You set the variables and watch it run.

Young's Double Slit Interference

Interference applet. This Java applet demonstrates the Double Slit Experiment.

Visual Aided Physics

An ongoing project at Universiti Putra Malaysia by Renganathan Palanisamy.

Interactive Physics and Math with Java

A set of more than 20 scientifically accurate, easily understandable, user friendly educational applets. These applets mostly cover the course of Introductory Physics or material close to it. This site is duplicated a number of places on the net.


More physics links


Linux for X-ray Astronomers.

Using Linux for Crystallographic Computing






Astronomical Software on Linux .

High Energy Physics and PC's.

Available electromagnetic scattering programs.

LAACG : A Resource for Accelerator Physics and Electromagnetic Modeling.

NCSA Numerical Relativity Group Codes

GC3 (the Grand Challenge Cosmology Consortium) Software Archives

WWW Virtual Library: Physics

WWW Virtual Library: Astronomy and Astrophysics





Online educational resources for physics teachers

The internet pilot to physics



The Particle Adventure

An award-winning site from the Particle Data Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. "A tour of the inner workings of the atom."

Fusion Energy Education

Leads to several excellent resources which teach about fusion.

SLAC Visitor Center

Information provided by SLAC for informing the general public about particle physics.

The Science of Particle Physics

Overview of elementary particle physics at Fermilab.

U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program

A very comprehensive U.S. Department of Energy site related to fusion research. Provides a large number of links to institutions and organizations, and there is a special fusion education section too.

Contemporary (Nuclear) Physics Education Project (CPEP)

A product of teachers, educators, and physicists located around the world. Charts, brochures, web features, and classroom activities present the current understanding of cosmic rays, radiation, particle physics, fission, fusion, and similar topics. Award-winning site.

Life, the Universe and the Electron

An exhibition to celebrate the centenary of the discovery of the electron--A collaboration between the Science Museum, London, and the Institute of Physics

Antimatter: Mirror of the Universe

A thorough discussion covering all aspects of antimatter.

Fermilab Education

For students, educators, visitors.

ATLAS Educational Information

The ATLAS Experiment is to be carried out at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator facility of the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. Website is intended for people of all ages who are curious about fundamental particles and forces as well as about particle research.

The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX)

The site "allows students and teachers to participate remotely in scientific research at [America's] largest fusion energy laboratory." Requires Java-capable browser and Shockwave plug-in to be able to use the excellent educational modules. Also has an "ask the expert" forum for fusion-related questions.

General Atomics Fusion Group

Educational fusion research information. Includes links to other fusion sites as well as teacher resources.

What is the Higgs Boson?

From Scientific American: Ask the Experts: Physics.

Do Tachyons Exist?

An article from sci.physics FAQ.

Big Bang Science

Site seeks to explain the origins of matter and current high-energy research regarding the conditions of the early universe. The information presented here is published in booklet form by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC).

OnScreen Particle Physics

A simulation for Mac and Windows 95/98/NT that allows even beginning students to experience what real particle physics experiments are like. Demo versions available for download.


Introductory information on leptons (electrons, muons, taus, and neutrinos).

A Basic Introduction to Nuclear Physics


A hypertextbook presenting elementary facts about nuclear physics. Nuclear physics is the study of the properties of the nucleus, the tiny object at the heart of every atom, and the forces that hold the nucleus together.

What is Antimatter?

From Scientific American: Ask the Experts: Physics.

What is the Mass of a Photon?

A short article from sci.physics FAQ.

Nuclear Power Plant Demonstration

Java applet of a basic nuclear power plant. Try to keep the reactor running safely under various failure scenarios.

Meltdown at Three Mile Island, a Documentary

Companion site to the PBS show of the same name. Covers "How a Nuclear Reactor Works" and "What Happened," showing the series of events that took place on March 28, 1979. Useful for a quick lesson about Three Mile Island. Also has teacher's guide to the show and a link for ordering the video. Requires Java-enabled browser.

Classical & Statistical Thermodynamics & Mechanics Educational Sites

A collection of resources gathered by the Thermodynamics Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Nuclear Age Timeline

A chronological record of the nuclear age: links to people, documents and educational units. Explore political and ethical dilemmas of the Nuclear Age.


Dedicated to all forms and aspects of cosmology. "The site ... covers all aspects of cosmology and addresses both concrete and theoretical topics." Modern browsers work best at this site.

Physicists and the Bomb

Course taught at U of Michigan in the fall of 1999. Covers mainly atomic energy, its history, and its uses. Has a very large collection of related links to browse.

Atom Builder

A shockwave application that allows the user to add up and down quarks to a hydrogen nucleus to create a carbon nucleus.


Why are there more protons than antiprotons? A short article from Usenet Physics FAQ.

Does Antimatter Fall Up or Down?

A short article from sci.physics FAQ.

The Particle Zoo

A short explanation of the multitude of elementary particles, from Usenet physics FAQ.

Why are there Eight Gluons and not Nine?

A short article from sci.physics FAQ.


Introductory information on particle decays produced by the Stanford Linear Accelerator.


A collection of Web-based games and activities to develop an understanding of the operations and experiments that take place in the

Fermilab accelerator and detector halls and the scientific ideas they explore. Has a special section for teachers.

The World of Nuclear Science

"The World of Nuclear Science", is an interactive educational site that teaches people about the concepts, applications, issues relating to and history of nuclear science.

Nuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future

Student-produced site thoroughly covering most angles of nuclear physics: the physics, the popular and unpopular uses of it, and the political and environmental issues.

Atomic Alchemy: Nuclear Processes

A site designed to help high school and college students learn nuclear physics -- includes explanations of fission, fusion, the atom, as well as animations and online quizzes.

Journey into the Atom

An introduction to particle physics, apparently with a target audience of children aged 9-14 or so. A high-resolution monitor and java-enabled browser are recommended but not required. Provides links for further study.

How Stuff Works: How Atom Smashers Work

Tutorial with 28 color illustrations and photographs looks at these amazing devices and how the results they obtain tell us about the fundamental structure of matter, the forces holding it together and the origins of the universe.

Tau Decay Physics

Summary of decay modes and their probabilities.

Reflections on Matter

Atoms to quarks, quantum physics, the big bang, and newer theories about matter.

Introduction to Particle Physics

Beginners guide to particle physics.

Higgs Particle Possibly Discovered

A report on one of the potentially most important discoveries of the new millennium, along with a summary of the standard model of particle physics.

Hampton University Particle Physics Education

Describes the work of the Hampton University Particle Physics group in the ATLAS project as well as provides material and links for particle physics and general physics education. It also provides information on and links to QuarkNet, an NSF-DOE sponsored initiative to improve physics education.


What is fusion power?

What is fusion power? And is it the answer to our energy problems?


An overview of bremsstrahlung (or stopping radiation). From The Particle Detector BriefBook.

Physics Freeware and Nuclear Particles

This page permits downloading of animated, interactive graphics programs if a Dos Prompt is available (W95) or a slide show of images showing the same information (W98+). They are about advanced concepts with little math.

Nuclear Energy Guide

Learn the beginning concepts of nuclear energy including nuclear fission, accidents, power and both sides of the nuclear argument. (quicktime plug-in)

Cherenkov Radiation

From The Particle Detector BriefBook.

Nuclear Fusion Basics

First of a set of linked pages explaining, with pictures, nuclear fusion.

Nuclear War and You

The effects of a nuclear blast.

How a Nuclear Plant Works

Basic explanations of radioactivity, the production of heat, safety precautions, and the benefits of nuclear energy. Has links to some nuclear regulatory sites.

Fusion Power: Energy Source of the 21st Century

Basic information about fusion, fusion power, deuterium and sources of fusion materials.

ABCs of Nuclear Science

A comprehensive introduction to nuclear science-- antimatter, beta rays, cosmic radiation, radioactivity, the difference between fission and fusion, and the structure of the nucleus, for starters. Site also provides access to reference and teaching materials and experiments. From Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Uses frames.


a quantum mechanical density functional calculations in periodic systems.

ASCL Archive

astrophysics source code library archive.


an astronomy software showing a sky map and coordinates of stars


Astrophysical software components written in Ada95.

Automated Telescope Facility

control/operate/processing for automated telescope.


a FITS image display and analysis tool for UNIX.


finds reflections which are suitable to use as psi scan reflections from a CAD4 file.


computing transfer functions and microwave background anisotropy for cosmological models


an arbitrary order beam dynamics simulation and analysis code.


automatic solution of the phase problem in single crystal X-ray diffraction.


calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation.


simulation of plane wave topographs of dislocations.


diffuse scattering and defect structure Simulation.


draw radiation pattern of an antenna.

Electronic Periodic Table of the Elements.


a finite element electromagnetic modeling codes.


experimental physics industrial control system.



a 3D Maxwell's equation solver.

Free Physics

a project to create an educational physics simulator.


solve complex problems encountered in powder diffraction


a computational holography program.

MIT Photonic-Bands -- compute band structures and electromagnetic modes of periodic dielecric structures.

NEC -- code for modelling electromagnetic response of antennas and other metal structures.

Optical Scattering -- a collections of Fortran 77 routines for electromagnetic scattering theory.

slen -- calculates de band structure of a semiconductor superlattices with Kronig-Penney method.

SMEED -- a maximum entropy program used in crystallography.

XLOOPS -- a program calculating Feynman diagrams.

XMD -- a program for performing molecular dynamics simulations.

Xplns -- an astronomy simulation software for UNIX.

XRS X-ray Rietveld System -- programs for crystal structural analysis with powder diffraction data.

Xtal_GX -- a crystallographic computing package.

EMLIB -- computational electromagnetic codes.

Software for Chemistry







Physique statistique hors d'équilibre : équation de Boltzmann .

Lecture notes on Surfaces and Thin Films.

GALILEO AND EINSTEIN Overview and Lecture ndex

Lectures for Physics 150 Fall 1999

Site de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure

(notes de cours de F. Laloë, de C. Cohen-Tannoudji)

Cours de troisième cycle.

Ensemble de notes de cours rassemblées par Bertrand Delmotte.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology –

Physics Education Office (en anglais)

Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations:

an Overview and Applications.

Notes de cours sur la relativité générale de Sean Carroll (exceptionnel mais en anglais)

Sites de notes de cours rassemblés.

Notes de cours sur la théorie quantique des champs (en anglais et en allemand)

Encore des notes de cours sur la théorie quantique des champs.

Notes de cours de mécanique quantique. Site de l'université d'Oldenburg.

World Lecture Hall

notes de cours sur divers sujets en physique.

Notes de cours de mécanique quantique.

"The Archimedeans" serveur de notes de cours de physique et de math.

Online Physics Textbooks. Cours de physique de niveau lycée et premier cycle universitaire.

Newtonian Physics.

Clautrophobic Physics : An introduction to the theory of relativity and Poincaré Symmetry.

Notes de cours de physique en ligne.

Gordon Vandalen's home page. Cours de mécanique, électromagnétisme, thermodynamique et mécanique des fluides. Niveau 1er cycle universitaire.

The Fundamental Equations of Hydro-Thermo-Dynamics of Real Fluid (Robert O. Reid, Texas A&M University, anglais). La Thermodynamique appliquée aux fluides réels et, en particulier, en Océanographie.

Advanced Thermodynamics.

Cours d'électromagnétisme à la California State University at Chico.

Notes de cours sur les méthodes mathématiques en physique de l'université de Hong Kong.

Notes de cours de mécanique statistique.

Cours de mécanique quantique relativiste.

Une véritable mine d'articles, de notes de cours et de sites Web sur la physique.


French web site



Les Oscillations paramétriques.





Introduction aux Méthodes Quantiques de Calcul en RMN de Haute


Algebre et analyse tensorielle, Mecanique des milieux continus, Elasticite lineaire, statistique des poudres, Theorie des coques, Packages Maple: tens3d et tenssurf, Elements finis, Grandes deformations.

Cours universitaires francophones.


La Thermodynamique sur la toile.

Cours de Thermodynamique.

Cours de Thermodynamique.

Thermodynamique chimique.

Thermodynamique et cinétique.

Cours et Exercices de Thermodynamique (Programme de DEUG).

Vidéocours des Amphis de la Cinquième.

Cours de Thermodynamique.

A Radically Modern Approach to Freshman Physics.

Cours de Thermique.Physics Formulary.

Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer for Electrical Engineers.

Principles of Physics I.

Introduction to Chemical Engineering.




NATS online.

Dictionnaires, encyclopédies et

La Chaleur (Palais de la Découverte). Une entrée conduisant vers quelques pages de vulgarisation.

Encyclopedia of Thermodynamics.

La thermodynamique ??? (SCIO). Un excellent et très complet site de vulgarisation où tout est expliqué sans aucune formule.

The Expert System for Thermodynamics (TEST) (anglais). Un parcours dans une arborescence oü c'est à vous de choisir parmi les branches qui vous sont tendues. Cette structure vous permet de vous poser les bonnes questions lors de la résolution d'un problème.



Applications a divers domaines



Mécanique des milieux continus en déformations finies (Jean Garrigues, ESM2 Marseille)

Un cours très complet où la Thermodynamique trouve évidemment sa place. Vous pouvez aussi consulter une version plus douce (cours de Mécanique des milieux continus) facilement accessible pour un étudiant de deuxième cycle.




Biphasic Theory for Hydrated Soft Tissue (Chris C. Wang, New York Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, anglais).

Un cours très complet sur les milieux diphasiques où la Thermodynamique a sa place (applications aux tissus vivants).

Physical Chemistry of Evolution (Georgi P. Gladyshev, Academy of Creative Endeavors, anglais). Divers papiers sur l'application de la Thermodynamique aux systèmes biologiques complexes et au vieillissement.




Networks in Nature: Some Reflections on Time, Space and the Emergence of Living Systems (Donald C. Mikulecky, Virginia Commonwealth University, anglais). Les diapositives d'une conférence sur la thermodynamique dans les systèmes biologiques.




La thermodynamique chimique (Xavier Bataille, Académie de Paris). La partie qui nous concerne du cours de Chimie Générale, ainsi que quelques exercices.

Chemical Thermodynamics (James A. Plambeck, University of Alberta, anglais).

Un bon cours de Thermodynamique.

Brown University Chemistry Department NOUVEAU (anglais). De nombreux cours de Chimie. A voir selon les contenus.

Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics (Reid Miller, Washington State University, anglais)

Des cours et exercices à télécharger au format MS Word.

Thermodynamique et Réactions d'oxydo-réduction (Claude Rivière, Université de la Méditerranée).

Un cours de Bioénergétique dans la rubrique"Enseignements" et un document au format PDF.

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering (Ming Tham, Université de Newcastle, anglais).

Un cours en construction. Statistical Thermodynamics of Materials (Boris Veytsman & Michael Kotelyanskii, Penn State University, anglais). Des résumés de cours sur les états de la matière et les changements de phase.

Serveur de cours de l'Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal NOUVEAU. - MEC 2210 Thermodynamique (E. Bilgen). Des résumés de cours complets. - Banque de quizz corrigés à télécharger en format PDF.;

Basic Chemical Thermodynamics (University of Sunderland, anglais).

Un cours de Thermochimie.

Chimie Générale I (Jean-Claude Bünzli, Université de Lausanne).

Le chapitre II.2.5 traite de la Thermochimie.




Chemistry 112 (Scott Goode, University of South Carolina, anglais).

Des transparents de cours. Le chapitre 17 traite de Thermochimie. CHEMystery (ThinkQuest, anglais). Le minimum vital.


Cycles & Machines


Améliorer le rendement thermodynamique des moteurs (Alain Duparquet, EDF). Un site très bien fait avec des définitions simples, les cycles de Carnot et de Hirn, et une page de liens.

Wankel Rotary Combustion Engines (anglais). Un site très complet dédié au moteur de Wankel. Stirling Engine Home Page (Koichi Hirata, anglais). Un site très complet dédié au cycle de Stirling.

Thermodynamics - Basic Cycles and Components (Elaine P. Scott, Virginia Tech, anglais). Les cycles classiques et leurs composants.

How Stuff Works (anglais). Un "comment ça marche" très bien fait.


Quelques points particuliers


About Temperature (Beverly Lynds, Unidata, anglais). Tout sur la température...

General Physics for Bio-Science Majors (Collin L. Broholm, Johns Hopkins University, anglais). Un chapitre de cours sur la température et l'équilibre thermique.

La Chaleur (Michel Testaz, Université de Lausanne). Une approche historique sur la chaleur.

Thermodynamics Mini-Tutorials (William R. Smith, Mathtrek Systems, anglais). Deux pages sur les calculs en :

Engineering Thermodynamics (William R. Smith, University of Guelph, anglais). Deux diagrammes pVT et une mise au point intéressante sur la "loi de Dalton".






More Applets Java & Experiences


Introduction to Thermodynamics (Murcia University, anglais). Des résumés de cours, des exercices et des démonstrations interactives en Java.Jersey Virtual Laboratory (anglais). Des expériences interactives.

Welcome to the Pressure Chamber: sur la loi du gaz parfait.

Thermodynamic Equilibrium: sur le transfert de chaleur.

National Taiwan Normal University Virtual Physics Laboratory (anglais). Des applets Java pour illustrer :

le modèle moléculaire du gaz parfait,

le mouvement brownien,

la pompe à chaleur de Carnot.

UCI Educational Applets (anglais). Un site de Chimie avec quelques applets sur les molécules.

Properties of Heat and Matter (Berkeley (Université de Californie), anglais). Des planches représentant diverses expériences accessibles de l'index.


The second law of thermodynamics


Entropy on the World Wide Web (Chris Hillman, University of Washington, anglais).

Tout sur l'entropie partout

An Equation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Tomas D. Schneider, National Institutes of Health (Frederick, MD), anglais) Digressions sur diverses formes du deuxième principe..

What is Disorder? (Marcus Pivato, University of Toronto, anglais). Le deuxième principe dans la théorie des systèmes dynamiques.

J. C. Baird's Lecture Notes (Brown University, anglais). Un cours de Chimie avec un chapitre sur le deuxième principe.

Entropy (San Diego (Université de Californie), anglais). Des diapos et des films pour illustrer l'ordre et de désordre (approche microscopique).

Negentropy Maximization Principle and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness (Matti Pitkänen, University of Helsinki, anglais).

Lauer's Entropy Page (Eric Lauer, anglais).

Un devoir d'étudiant en Chimie.

Le deuxième principe et les théories de l'évolution. S'agissant d'une question récurrante, il eut été dommage de l'éluder. ATTENTION, certains discours sont uniquement basés sur une formulation acceptable mais fallacieuse du deuxième principe du type : "Quelque chose d'abîmé marche moins bien" ou encore "On n'a jamais vu un mur effondré se reconstruire tout seul" ! En tout cas, ça repose (mais n'appuyez pas trop sur la détente, ça peut être fatal).. Jugez-vous-même (sélection) :

Life as a Manifestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Eric Schneider & James Kay, University of Waterloo , anglais). Une application aux systèmes vivants.

Evolution and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Philip Dorrell, anglais). Le démon de Maxwell existe, il est en chacun denous.

Thermodynamics, Evolution and Creationism (anglais). Sur la non-violation du deuxième principe dans l'évolution à ce site consacré à la controverse creationistes/evolutionistes.

Evolution defies the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Steve Kangas, anglais). Comme au-dessus à ce site sur le libéralisme.

Frequently Asked Questions About Evolution (Robyn Conder Broyles, anglais). Une pierre de plus dans la controverse.

The Laws of Nature vs. Evolution (anglais).

Lapage la plus ciblée de The Creation-Evolution Encyclopedia qui, pour une encyclopédie, penche dangereusement vers le premier point de vue.

Cosmic Ancestry (Brig Klyce , anglais). Une page co(s)mique à ce site où vous apprenez que vous êtes un extra-terrestre... et ce ne sont pas lesréférences qui manquent.

Automatisme, Grafcet et numérique:

Grafcet : GRAphe Fonctionnel Composé d' Etape - Transition.






Logiciel d'EAO QCM-QUIZ:


De la tres bonne vulgarisation scientifique.:




Sciences news

More link’s

Software Resources for Data acquisition

and Data Analysis in NuclearPhysics

COURS: pour la formation d'Administrateur Réseau.

1001 links:


Linux freeware



Linux for X-ray Astronomers

Using Linux for Crystallographic Computing




Astronomical Software on Linux

Linux freeware



Travel information


The Airport Boukhalf International is the nearest airport to the Faculty of Sciences and Technology where is the Applied Physics Laboratory (about 2 Km).

The transportation is available from the Airport to the Faculty.

Please see: Airoport


On line reservation: Hotel

More useful information